In Vitro Assessment of Antimicrobial Potential of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extract of Phlomis Umbrosa Against Some Highly Resistant Pathogens
Objective: To find out the antibacterial potential of ethanolic and aqueous roots extract of Phlomis umbrosa L. against both Gram positive and Gram negative isolates
Methodology: Disk diffusion method according to Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) standard was used to examine the in vitro antibacterial activity of P. umbrosa extract while minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using broth dilution technique. Miles and Misra technique was also utilized to count the number of colonies CFU/mL of bacteria at different concentrations of extract.
Results: All the studied strains showed a diverse range of vulnerability against both ethanolic and aqueous plant extract. Among all tested isolates, ethanolic extract of P. umbrosa showed highly significant activity against Gram positive isolates i.e. S. aureus (20.1 mm) and B. subtilis (22.9 mm) with least MIC (12.5 mg/mL) and MBC (12.5 mg/mL) as compared to Gram negative isolates. A progressive decline in bacterial colonies (CFU/mL) was observed in Miles and Misra technique. One way ANOVA followed by postHoc Tukey test showed the significant differences in antimicrobial activities of plant extract with two tested antibiotics i.e. Amoxicillin and Erythromycin (10 µg/disc) as positive control at p-value of 0.05. The antimicrobial activity of this plant exhibit may be due to the presence of such chemical constituents namely monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids compounds.
Conclusion: It is concluded that roots ethanolic extract of P. umbrosa has a promising antibacterial potential so it can also be used as an alternative medicine to treat different infections for reducing bacterial resistance and side effects associated with antibiotics.
Owolabi OJ, Omogbai EK, Obasuyi O. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extract of Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) stem bark. Afr J Biotechnol 2007;6(14):1677-80.
Bouzada ML, Fabri RL, Nogueira M, Konno TU, Duarte GG, Scio E. Antibacterial, cytotoxic and phytochemical screening of some traditional medicinal plants in Brazil. Pharm Biol 2009;47(1):44-52.
Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. ClinMicrobiol Rev 1999;12(4):564-82.
Nathan C, Cars O. Antibiotic resistance—problems, progress, and prospects. N Eng J Med 2014;371(19):1761-3.
Davies J, Davies D. Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2010;74(3):417-33.
Adcock H. Pharmageddon: is it too late to tackle growing resistance to anti-infectives? Pharm J 2002;269(7221):599-600.
Rosato A, Vitali C, De Laurentis N, Armenise D, Milillo MA. Antibacterial effect of some essential oils administered alone or in combination with Norfloxacin. Phytomed 2007;14(11):727-32.
Zhou Q, Liu Y, Liu X, He J. Studies of the factors linked to the bacteriostatic ability of Lactobacillus in human vagina. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2006;35(3):310-3.
Demirci F, Guven K, Demirci B, Dadandi M, Baser K. Antibacterial activity of two Phlomis essential oils against food pathogens. Food Cont. 2008;19(12):1159-64.
Shafiq Y, Naqvi SBS, Rizwani GH, Abbas T, Sharif H, Ali H, et al. Assessment of killing kinetics assay and bactericidal mechanism of crude methanolic bark extract of Casuarina equisetifolia. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2018;31(5 (Supplementary)):2143-8.
Mumtaz N, Asghar MA, Naqvi SBS, Asghar MA, Raza ML, Rehman AA. Time kill assay and bactericidal mechanism of action of ethanolic flowers extract of Sphaeranthus indicus. RADS J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2019;7(1):27-33.
Dorman HJD, Deans SG. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J App Mmicrobiol 2000;88(2):308-16.
Tian GH, Liu CF, Wei C, Lai PH. Study on component analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the flower of Phlomis umbrosa. Chin J Pharm Anal. 2009;3.
CLSI C. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (M100eS22). 2012(s22nd Informational Supplement).
Quinn B, Gagné F, Blaise C. An investigation into the acute and chronic toxicity of eleven pharmaceuticals (and their solvents) found in wastewater effluent on the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata. Sci Total Environ. 2008;389(2-3):306-314.
Khan I, Abbas T, Anjum K, Abbas SQ, Shagufta BI, Shah A, et al. Antimicrobial potential of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis against representative microbes. Pak J Pharm Sci 2019;32(2):631-6.
Munuswamy H, Thirunavukkarasu T, Rajamani S, Elumalai EK, Ernest D. A review on antimicrobial efficacy of some traditional medicinal plants in Tamilnadu. J Acute Dis. 2013;2(2):99-105.
Muthaura C, Keriko J, Mutai C, Yenesew A, Gathirwa J, Irungu B, et al. Antiplasmodial potential of traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the Kwale community of the Kenyan Coast. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;170:148-57.
Tona L, Ngimbi N, Tsakala M, Mesia K, Cimanga K, Apers S, et al. Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;68(1-3):193-203.
Tian GH, Liu CF, Lai PH. Study on Volatile Components and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from the Flower of Polygonum amplexicaule. Lishizhen Med Materia Medica Res.2008;7.
Morteza‐Semnani K, Azadbakht M, Goodarzi A. The essential oils composition of Phlomis herba‐venti L. leaves and ﬂowers of Iranian origin. Flavour Fragr J. 2004;19(1):29-31.