Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Pharmaceutical Waste Disposal in Community Pharmacies of Karachi

  • Amna Khan
  • Nazish Jaffar Jinnah Sindh Medical University
  • Sadaf Razaak
  • Faiza Zeeshan
  • Asma Shabbir
  • Syed Muhammad Ishaque
Keywords: Community pharmacy, pharmacists, disposal, environment, Karachi



The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of community pharmacies about recommended methods of drug disposal and hazardous effects of improper disposal of pharmaceutical waste and to determine the attitude as well as practice of community pharmacies about the proper disposal of pharmaceutical waste.


A cross-sectional study was performed with 139 community pharmacies in Karachi, Pakistan by using non-probability convenient sampling technique. Predesigned structured questionnaire was distributed to different community pharmacies in Karachi and filled questionnaires were collected after one day. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 22.0


About 65(46.8%) of the participants reported to have a system for regularly removing the expired or unused drugs by returning them to contractors/distributors. More than half 86(61.9%) of the participants dispose of solid, liquid, semi-solid, controlled and p-listed drugs in the rubbish bin. Approximately one- half of the participants believe that standard method for disposal of solid, liquid, semi-solid, controlled and p-listed drugs is by flushing them down the toilet/sink.


Our study showed that knowledge and practices of community pharmacies regarding disposal of unused and expired medicines were not satisfactory. However, most of the participants were well aware of the harmful effects caused by improper disposal of pharmaceutical waste on environment and showed positive attitude towards learning safe methods of management and disposal of unused and expired drugs.


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