Oral Clefts and Consanguinity: A Report from Karachi, Pakistan

Oral clefts and consanguinity in Karachi

  • Summera Kanwal Almustufa Medical Center
  • Tahera Ayub Professor of OMFS, Liaquat College of Medicine & Dentistry, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Fatima Ashraf Ganatra House Officer, Plastic Surgery Department, Civil Hospital Karachi, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Ashraf Ganatra Professor, Liaquat College of Medicine & Dentistry, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Zara Zahid Consultant Plastic Surgeon, Al Mustufa Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Dania Hamid Trainee Maxillofacial Surgeon, Al Mustufa Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan


Objective: To evaluate the occurrence of the risk of offspring having cleft lip and palate in consanguineous
Methodology: This is a cross sectional study which was done for a period of six months from March 2022
to November 2022 at Al-Mustafa Hospital, Karachi. All patients without any syndromes and medically fit
were included and respondents were interviewed using a questionnaire.
Results: A total of 278 patients with 129 (46.4%) females and 149 (53.6%) males were included. Fifty one
(18.3%) patients had isolated cleft lip, 162 (58.3%) patients had complete cleft, and 65 (23.4%) patients had
isolated cleft palate. Total 158 (56.8%) parents of children had consanguineous marriages, of which 83 (29.9%)
were married to paternal side and 76 (27.3%) were married to the maternal side. History of parental cleft was
seen in 9 (3.2%) patients. Among risk factors, 8 (2.9%) mothers had radiation exposure during pregnancy and
8 (2.9%) and 2 (0.7%) had habits of huqqa and smoking respectively. Seven (2.5 %) patients were
twins and one was born with cleft either isolated or complete and other without any anomaly.
Conclusion: Nearly half of the study population in this study had consanguineous marriages. Strategies should
be developed to educate people about association of orofacial clefts with consanguinity along with risk factors.
Key Words: Consanguinity, cleft lip, cleft palate, non-syndromic


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How to Cite
Kanwal, S., Ayub, T., Ganatra, F., Ganatra, M., Zahid, Z., & Hamid, D. (2024). Oral Clefts and Consanguinity: A Report from Karachi, Pakistan. Annals of Jinnah Sindh Medical University, 10(1), 3-6. https://doi.org/10.46663/ajsmu.v10i1.3-6
Original Articles