Ethnicity based Anatomical Variations in Malleus on Computerized Tomographic Scan

Ethnic variations in malleus anatomy on CT scan

  • Mariya Azam Khattak Assistant professor, Peshawar Medical College
  • Ambreen Usmani Professor and Principal, Department of Anatomy, Jinnah Medical and Dental College- Sohail University, Karachi
  • Ayesha Mehwish Assistant Professor (Anatomy) Bahria University of Health Sciences, Karachi
  • Rida Rubab Ahmad Assistant Professor Anatomy, Shahida Islam Medical and Dental College, Multan road, Lodhran
  • Maryam Faiz Qureshi Assistant Professor, Master of Science in Medical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, California USA.
  • Noman Ullah Wazir Associate Professor Anatomy, Peshawar Medical College,
Keywords: Ear ossicles, Morphological variations, petrous temporal bone


Objective: To determine the anatomical variations in malleus among different ethnic groups
Methodology: An observational investigation was conducted within the Otorhinolaryngology and Radiology
department of a public hospital in Karachi, (PNS) Shifa. In this study, 100 participants were included from
January-July 2021 with ages ranging from 10-51 years. After obtaining consent and complete history from
each participant, a detailed examination of ear was done. Subjects were arranged for petrous temporal bone
(PTB) computed tomographic scans based on the inclusion criteria of no deformity concerning ear ossicles.
The parameters considered for potential anatomical differences were width of malleus head, manubrium
length, and complete malleus length.
Results: In 100 subjects, the mean ±S.D (mm) for width of malleus head was 3.02±0.31, for manubrium
length 4.39±0.46 and complete malleus length was found to be 7.59±0.57. The value for length of manubrium
among ethnic groups was found to be significant (p= 0.05).
Conclusion: Identification of these variations in such small bones is difficult but it is not impossible to
comprehend, considering the availability of advance technologies. As, morphological variants can disrupt the
prosthesis procedures, therefore, CT-PTB are suggested to acknowledge these modifications in size and shape.
This study showed variations among groups.
Key Words: Ear ossicles, ethnicity, malleus, morphological variations, petrous temporal bone


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How to Cite
Khattak, M., Usmani, A., Mehwish, A., Ahmad, R., Qureshi, M., & Wazir, N. (2024). Ethnicity based Anatomical Variations in Malleus on Computerized Tomographic Scan. Annals of Jinnah Sindh Medical University, 10(1), 7-11.
Original Articles