Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC): Uncommon in Pakistan?

Triple-negative breast cancer: uncommon in Pakistan?

  • Hiba Siddiqui Dr Ziauddin University Hospital
  • Zubia Masood Associate Professor, Surgery Department, Baqai medical University Hospital
  • Tuba Laiq Post-graduate Trainee, Oncology, Dr Ziauddin University Hospital
  • Ayesha Agha Resident Medical Officer, Oncology, Dr Ziauddin University Hospital
  • Jawaid Akhtar Mallick Head of Department, Oncology, Dr Ziauddin University Hospital
Keywords: TNBC, Age, Postmenopausal, Grade


Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and elucidate the factors
associated with triple-negative breast carcinoma.
Methodology: It is a retrospective study, that includes breast cancer patients presenting to the outpatient
department (OPD) for three years from January 2020 to January 2023.
Results: A total of 946 biopsy-proven breast carcinoma cases were included, out of which, 220 (23.2%) were
identified as triple-negative breast cancer. The predominant age range among TNBC patients was 40 to 60
years at the time of diagnosis. A total of 58.2% were postmenopausal, while 41.8% were pre-menopausal.
Histopathologically, TNBC cases primarily exhibited ductal carcinoma (91.4%), metaplastic carcinoma (7.7%),
and lobular carcinoma (0.9%). Tumor grading within the TNBC group revealed that the majority (71.4%)
were poorly differentiated (Grade 3), while 26.8% were moderately differentiated (Grade 2), and 1.8% were
well differentiated (Grade 1). Concerning family history, 12.7% of TNBC patients had a positive first-degree
relative with breast cancer, 5.9% had a positive 2nd-degree family member, and 81.4% had no family history
of breast cancer, indicating a significant association with TNBC. This study also revealed the ethnicity of
TNBC patients that the majority (85%) identified as Urdu-speaking, Sindhi (6.4%), Pakhtoon (4.1%), Punjabi
(3.6%), and Balochi (0.9%) backgrounds.
Conclusion: Our results showed, that TNBC primarily affected individuals aged 40 to 60 with high-grade
tumors, showing associations with menopausal status and histopathology. Family history displayed no
significant correlation while Urdu-speaking ethnicity was prominent. As TNBC is an aggressive neoplastic
entity. By determining the incidence of TNBC, we can adapt interventions and allocate resources more
effectively, thereby enhancing patient care and ultimately advancing survival rates.
Key Words: Age, grade, TNBC, postmenopausal


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How to Cite
Siddiqui, H., Masood, Z., Laiq, T., Agha, A., & Mallick, J. (2024). Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC): Uncommon in Pakistan?. Annals of Jinnah Sindh Medical University, 10(1), 18-23.
Original Articles